I2O RELATIONSHIP OF CETACEA CHAP. of this group. A short re"simi(5 of what is at present thought of the systematic position of this anomalous order is appro- priate here. Albrecht went so far as to regard the Cetacea as the. nearest group of animals to the hypothetical Proinamniaiia.1 But discounting his arguments by the removal of such of them as relate to structure plainly altered by the singular mode of life of these creatures, there is really a great deal to be said in favour of his view. The chief facts which argue a primitive position among mammals for the Cetacea are perhaps : (1) the slight union of the rami of the lower jaw; (2) the occasionally rather marked traces of the double constitution of the sternum; (3) the long and simple lungs ; (4) the retention of the testes within the body-cavity; (5) the occasional presence (in JBalaenoptera) of a separate supra-angular bone. These points, however, are but few, and are not of such great weight as those which ought to be pre- sent to establish a claim to separate treatment for the Cetacea as opposed to the Eutheria. If this group of mammals can be tacked on anywhere, it appears to us that the nearest relatives are not, as is sometimes put forward, the IJngulata or the Carnivora, but the Edentata. There are quite a number of rather striking features in which a likeness is shown between these apparently diverse orders of mammals. The chief ones are these: (I) the existence of traces of a hard exoskeleton, of which vestiges remain in the Porpoise; (2) the double articula- tion of the rib of the Balaenopterids to the sternum, with which compare the conditions obtaining in the Great Anteater; (3) the concrescence of some of the cervical vertebrae ; (4) the share which the pterygoids may take in the formation of the hard palate; (5) the fact that in the Porpoise, at any rate,as in many Edentates, the vena eava, instead of increasing in size as it approaches the liver, diminishes. Another group which is perfectly isolated is that of the Sirenia. The alliance advocated by some with the Cetacea, and- quite recently renewed by Professor Haeckel,is contradicted by so many important features that it seems necessary to abandon it. The recent discovery of a fossil Sirenian jaw by Dr. Lydekker with teeth highly suggestive of those of Artiodactyla, may prove a clue. A third group which is BO isolated as to have been, placed in a 1 Anat. An*, i. 1886, p, 338 ; and see Weber, ibid, ii, 1887, p. 42.